The Socio-Economic Conditions of European Youth:
A Focus on Migrant Youth

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The socio-economic conditions of youth in the European Union (EU) have become a focal point of policy and public concern, particularly given the diverse challenges and opportunities presented by migration. Migrant youth, defined as individuals aged 15-29 who have migrated from non-EU countries or have parents who did, face unique socio-economic conditions that influence their integration and prospects in European societies. This article delves into the socio-economic status of European youth, emphasizing the distinct experiences of migrant youth in education, employment, and social integration.


Demographic Overview

Europe’s youth population is becoming increasingly diverse due to significant migration flows over the past decades. According to Eurostat, nearly 10% of the EU’s youth are of migrant origin, with notable concentrations in countries like Germany, France, Italy, and Spain. These young migrants come from a variety of regions, including the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, contributing to the cultural and demographic mosaic of Europe.



Education is a critical determinant of socio-economic outcomes for youth. While the EU has made strides in improving educational access and attainment, disparities remain, particularly for migrant youth.

Multiculturalism becomes everyday more a reality in all aspects of life, and European countries are urgently called to collaborate and share good practices and action plans in important topics such as education and integration of youth. 


  • Language Barriers: Migrant youth often face language difficulties that impede their academic performance and integration into the school system.
  • Educational Attainment: According to the OECD, migrant youth have lower secondary and tertiary education completion rates compared to their native peers.
  • Segregation: In some EU countries, migrant children are disproportionately placed in schools with lower overall performance, which affects their educational outcomes.

How is the EU trying to overcome these challenges? First of all with integration programs. Various EU countries have implemented language and integration programs to support migrant students. For example, Germany’s “Integrationskurse” provides language and civic education to young migrants. And inclusive Policies: The European Commission’s Youth Strategy emphasizes inclusive education and equal opportunities, aiming to bridge the gap for migrant youth.

As emphasized in the new Pact on Migration and Asylum, a successful integration and inclusion policy is an essential part of a well-managed and effective migration and asylum policy. It is also essential for social cohesion and for a dynamic economy that works for all.

The Action plan on Integration and Inclusion 2021-2027 proposes targeted and tailored support that takes into account individual characteristics that may present specific challenges to people with a migrant background, such as gender or religious background. Successful integration and inclusion depends both on early action and on long-term commitment.

Between the main aspects, the active participation and social inclusion, including actions to support exchanges with the receiving society, migrants’ participation in cultural life and fighting discrimination.

The FOR-J project that our consortium is taking care of and developing aims to be one of the initiatives to present inspiring stories, data-driven plans, and inclusive spaces to empower educators and youth workers in fostering peace and understanding among diverse communities.

The socio-economic conditions of European youth are complex and multifaceted, with migrant youth facing unique challenges that require targeted policies and initiatives. Addressing these issues is crucial not only for the well-being of migrant youth but also for the social cohesion and economic prosperity of the European Union as a whole. Continued efforts in education, employment, and social integration are essential to ensure that all young people, regardless of their background, have the opportunity to thrive.



  • Eurostat. Migration and migrant population statistics. Link
  • European Commission. Youth Strategy. Link
  • OECD. International Migration Outlook 2023. Link
  • UNICEF. Refugee and migrant children in Europe. Link
  • Eurofound. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Link
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